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Timeline of the Greek Language

The Greek language is traditionally delineated into five phases marked by four historical markers:

  • 800 BCE, the end of what is considered the Greek "Dark" Ages, marks the beginning of Ancient/Classical Greek;
  • 323 BCE, the death of Alexander the Great, marks the beginning of Koine/Hellenistic Greek;
  • 330 CE, Constantine's moving of the Roman capital from Rome to Byzantium and renaming of Byzantium to Constantinople, marks the beginning of Byzantine/Medieval Greek;
  • 1453 CE, the Turks' conquest and renaming of Constantinople to Istanbul, marks the beginning of Modern Greek.
Greek LanguageGreeceTimeline of Greek History
Aegean Civilization
ca. 1600 BCE
Aegean Civilization, -1600 BCE
Mycenean Greece
ca. 1600-1200 BCE
1600 BCEArrival of Greeks in the Aegean around 1600 BCE
Mycenean Greek
(Linear B)
1460-1200 BCE
1460 BCEMycenaen Greek occupation of Minoan Crete
Trojan War, sometime between 1300-1200 BCE
Greek "Dark" Ages
c.1200-800 BCE
1200 BCEGreek Dark Ages, 1200-800 BCE
Dorian invasions beginning approx. 1150 BCE
Rise of first Greek city-states in 9th c. BCE
800 BCE Beginning of Classical Greece
800-323 BCE
8thc800 BCE
Ancient (Hellenic) Greece
776-323 BCE
776 BCEFirst recorded Olympic Games
Approximate time of Homer, c.750 BCE
6thc509 BCEBeginning of Roman Republic
507 BCEAthenian Revolution (Beginning of Athenian Democracy)
5thcPeloponnesian War between Athens against Sparta and Corinth (431-404 BCE)
4thc399 BCETrial of Socrates (470-399 BCE) for impiety
385 BCEPlato (427-347 BCE) founds his school of philosophy, the Academy, in Athens c.385 BCE
337 BCEEnd of Athenian Democracy
335 BCEAristotle (384-322 BCE) founds his school of philosphy at the Lyceum near Athens
323 BCE Death of Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE)
323 BCE-330 CE
Hellenistic Greece
323-146 BCE
4thc323 BCEDeath of Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE)
First War of the Diadochi (322-320 BCE)
Second War of the Diadochi (319-315 BCE)
Third War of the Diadochi (314-311 BCE)
Fourth War of the Diadochi (308-301 BCE)
3rdcStruggle over Macedon (298-285 BCE)
Struggle of Lysimachus and Seleucus (285-281 BCE)
281 BCEEstablishment of Antigonid dynasty in Macedonia; Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt; and Seleucid dynasty in Syria
First Punic War between Rome and Carthage (264-241 BCE)
Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage (218-202 BCE)
First Macedonian War between Rome and Macedon (215-205 BCE)
2ndcSecond Macedonian War between Rome and Macedon (200-197 BCE)
Third Macedonian War between Rome and Macedon (172-168 BCE)
Third Punic War between Rome and Carthage (149-146 BCE)
Roman Greece
146 BCE-
330 CE
146 BCERome annexes Macedon
1stc64 BCEPompey ends the Seleucid dynasty and makes Syria a province
44 BCEJulius Caesar assassinated
31 BCEPtolemaic Egypt (Mark Antony and Cleopatra) defeated by Rome (Octavian)
30 BCEEgypt annexed by Rome
27 BCEOctavian named "Augustus"; end of Roman Republic; beginning of Roman Empire
1stc1 CE
75 CEApprox. time of the writing of the New Testament gospels
3rdcDiocletian (284-305 CE) implements tetrachy
4thc312 CEConstantine's (306-337 CE) conversion
324 CEConstantine emerges as sole emperor
330 CE Beginning of the Byzantine Empire
330-1453 CE
Byzantine Empire
330-1453 CE
4thc330 CEConstantine moves capital to Byzantium/Constantinople
5thc410 CEGoths sack Rome
476 CECollapse of the Western Roman Empire
Height of Byzantine Empire, 867-1025 CE
1453 CE Turkish Conquest of Constantinople/Istanbul
Modern Greek
1453 CE-Present
(Katharevousa vs.
Ottoman Greece
1453-1832 CE
15thc1453 CETurkish conquest of Constantinople/Istanbul
19thc1829 CEGreece established as an independent state
Modern Greece
1832 CE-
1832 CEGreece recognized as a sovereign state
20thc1976 CEDemotic adopted as the official language of Greece
1982 CEPolytonic system of multiple accents and breathing marks abolished from Modern Greek

Copyright 2007-2024 Thomas Moore, Email: acct3 at, Support Forum Set Local Timezone
Tuesday, 16-Apr-2024 10:04:56 EDT





The Kata Biblon Grammar of the Greek New Testament is a grammar reference of the Greek New Testament and Septuagint.



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