Sign In | New Login
-->

Thematic Verb Endings (-ω Verbs)

Indicative Mood (All Tenses, Part I)

  • Tenses in the indicative mood: present, imperfect, future, aorist, perfect, and pluperfect.
  • Perfect and pluperfect tenses have κα/κει only in the active voice, not in the middle/passive.
  • 2nd-perfects drop the κ in the perfect and pluperfect active, e.g., γεγραφ·α (γραφω).
  • 2nd-passives drop the θ in the future and aorist θη-passive, e.g., ἐχαρ·ην (χαιρω).
Active VoiceMiddle/Passive Voiceθη-Passive
μιμαιμαι
1 SgPresentλυ·ω (ο·μι > ω?)λυ·ο·μαι
Futureλυ·σω λυ·σο·μαιλυ·[θ]η·σο·μαι
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]α (κα·μι > κα?)λε·λυ·μαι
ςσαισαι
2 SgPresentλυ·εις (ε·ς > εις?)λυ· (ε·σαι > ῃ)
Futureλυ·σεις λυ·σῃλυ·[θ]η·σῃ (σε·σαι)
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ας‡ (κα·ς)λε·λυ·σαι
σι(ν)ταιται
3 SgPresentλυ·ει (ε·σι > ει)λυ·ε·ται
Futureλυ·σειλυ·σε·ταιλυ·[θ]η·σε·ται
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ε(ν) (κα·σι > κε?)λε·λυ·ται
μενμεθαμεθα
1 PlPresentλυ·ο·μενλυ·ο·μεθα
Futureλυ·σο·μενλυ·σο·μεθαλυ·[θ]η·σο·μεθα
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]α·μενλε·λυ·μεθα
τεσθεσθε
2 PlPresentλυ·ε·τελυ·ε·σθε
Futureλυ·σε·τελυ·σε·σθελυ·[θ]η·σε·σθε
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]α·τελε·λυ·σθε
ασι(ν)νταινται
3 PlPresentλυ·ουσι(ν) (ο·ασι > ουσι)λυ·ο·νται
Futureλυ·σουσι(ν)λυ·σο·νταιλυ·[θ]η·σο·νται
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ασι(ν) (κα·ασι > κασι)λε·λυ·νται

†Two occurrences of -[σ]εσαι instead of -[σ]ῃ in the second singular future (fut mp ind 2 sg): φαγ·εσαι (ἐσθιω) and πι·εσαι (πινω).

‡One occurrence of -κες instead of -κας in the second singular perfect (perf act ind 2 sg): κεκοπιακες (κοπιαω).

κατακαιω in the third singular θη-passive has both κατακα[υ·θ]ησεται and κατακαυ·θησεται in the future, and κατεκα[υ·θ]η instead of κατεκαυ·θη in the aorist. (Note: θη-passive of παυω is πα·[θ]η-; is this actually παυ·[θ]η-, i.e., αυ·[θ]η > αη?)

Indicative Mood (All Tenses, Part II)

  • ε-augment only occurs in the indicative mood, and only in the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect tenses. (In the pluperfect, the ε-augment is optional.)
  • κ-aorists (-διδομι, -ιημι, and -τιθημι only) have κ instead of σ in the first-aorist indicative, but σ in the other moods, e.g., ἐδω·κα (διδομι), ἀφη·κα (ἀφιημι), ἐθη·κα (τιθημι) in the indicative, but δω·σῃ and δω·σωμεν (διδομι), θη·σω (τιθημι) in the subjunctive.
  • The 2nd-aorists ἠλθον (ἐρχομαι), εἰπον (λεγω), εἰδον (ὁραω) and ἠνεγκον (φερω) sometimes have 1st aorist endings, but without the aorist sigma.
Active VoiceMiddle/Passive Voiceθη-Passive
νμηνν
1 SgImperfect/2Aorε·λυ·ο·νε·λυ·ο·μην
1st Aoristε·λυ·σα (σα·ν > σα?)ε·λυ·σα·μηνε·λυ·[θ]η·ν
Pluperfect(ε)λε·λυ·[κ]ει·ν(ε)λε·λυ·μην
ςσος
2 SgImperfect/2Aorε·λυ·ε·ςε·λυ·ου (ε·σο > ου)
1st Aoristε·λυ·σα·ςε·λυ·σω (σα·σο > σω)ε·λυ·[θ]η·ς
Pluperfect(ε)λε·λυ·[κ]ει·ς(ε)λε·λυ·σο
το
3 SgImperfect/2Aorε·λυ·ε(ν)††ε·λυ·ε·το
1st Aoristε·λυ·σε(ν)†† (σα > σε?)ε·λυ·σα·τοε·λυ·[θ]η
Pluperfect(ε)λε·λυ·[κ]ει(ε)λε·λυ·το
μενμεθαμεν
1 PlImperfect/2Aorε·λυ·ο·μενε·λυ·ο·μεθα
1st Aoristε·λυ·σα·μενε·λυ·σα·μεθαε·λυ·[θ]η·μεν
Pluperfect(ε)λε·λυ·[κ]ει·μεν(ε)λε·λυ·μεθα
τεσθετε
2 PlImperfect/2Aorε·λυ·ε·τεε·λυ·ε·σθε
1st Aoristε·λυ·σα·τεε·λυ·σα·σθεε·λυ·[θ]η·τε
Pluperfect(ε)λε·λυ·[κ]ει·τε(ε)λε·λυ·σθε
σανντοσαν
3 PlImperfect/2Aorε·λυ·ον‡ (ο·σαν > ον)ε·λυ·ο·ντο
1st Aoristε·λυ·σαν (σα·σαν > σαν)ε·λυ·σα·ντοε·λυ·[θ]η·σαν
Pluperfect(ε)λε·λυ·[κ]ει·σαν(ε)λε·λυ·ντο

†One occurrence of κ-aorist -κες instead of -κας in the second singular first-aorist (1aor act ind 2 sg): ἀφηκες (ἀφιημι).

‡Three occurrences of -οσαν instead of -ον in the third plural; two imperfect (impf act ind 3 pl): εἰχοσαν (ἐχω) and ἐδολιουσαν (δολιοω); and one second-aorist (2aor act ind 3 pl): παρελαβοσαν (παραλαμβανω).

††Moveable ν on the third singular imperfect, first-aorist, and second-aorist does not appear on contracting verbs (i.e., -αω/-εω/-ηω/-οω verbs).

Subjunctive Mood (All Tenses)

  • Tenses in the subjunctive mood: present, aorist, perfect.
  • Perfect middle/passive is paraphrastic.
Active VoiceMiddle/Passive Voiceθη-Passive
μιμαιμι
1 SgPresent/2Aorλυ·ω (ω·μι > ω?)λυ·ω·μαι
1st Aoristλυ·σω (σω·μι > σω?)λυ·σω·μαιλυ·[θ]ω (θω·μι > θω?)
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ω (κω·μι > κω?)(paraphrastic)
ςσαις
2 SgPresent/2Aorλυ·ῃς (η·ς > ῃς?)λυ· (η·[σ]αι)
1st Aoristλυ·σῃς (ση·ς > σῃς?)λυ·σῃ (ση·[σ]αι)λυ·[θ]ῃς (θη·ς > θῃς?)
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ῃς (κη·ς > κῃς?)(paraphrastic)
σιταισι
3 SgPresent/2Aorλυ· (η·[σ]ι)λυ·η·ται
1st Aoristλυ·σῃ (ση·[σ]ι)λυ·ση·ταιλυ·[θ]ῃ (θη·[σ]ι)
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ῃ (κη·[σ]ι)(paraphrastic)
μενμεθαμεν
1 PlPresent/2Aorλυ·ω·μενλυ·ω·μεθα
1st Aoristλυ·σω·μενλυ·σω·μεθαλυ·[θ]ω·μεν
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ω·μεν(paraphrastic)
τεσθετε
2 PlPresent/2Aorλυ·η·τελυ·η·σθε
1st Aoristλυ·ση·τελυ·ση·σθελυ·[θ]η·τε
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]η·τε(paraphrastic)
ασινταιασι
3 PlPresent/2Aorλυ·ωσι(ν) (ω·ασι)λυ·ω·νται
1st Aoristλυ·σωσι(ν) (σω·ασι)λυ·σω·νταιλυ·[θ]ωσι(ν) (θω·ασι)
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ωσι (κω·ασι)(paraphrastic)

Optative Mood (All Tenses)

  • Tenses in the optative mood: present, future, aorist, perfect.
  • Optative is identifiable by endings with οι-, αι- (excluding -μαι, -σαι, and -ται), and -ειη.
Active VoiceMiddle/Passive Voiceθη-Passive
ιηνιμηνιην/ιμην
1 SgPresent/2Aorλυ·οιμι (ο·ι[η]ν > οιμι)λυ·ο·ιμην
Futureλυ·σοιμιλυ·σο·ιμηνλυ·[θ]η·σο·ιμην
1st Aoristλυ·σαιμιλυ·σα·ιμηνλυ·[θ]ε·ιην
Perfectλε·λυ·κοιμι(paraphrastic)
ιηςισο > ιοιης / ισο > ιο
2 SgPresent/2Aorλυ·οις (ο·ι[η]ς)λυ·οιο (ο·ισο > οιο)
Futureλυ·σοιςλυ·σοιολυ·[θ]η·σο·ιο
1st Aoristλυ·σαιςλυ·σαιολυ·[θ]ε·ιης
Perfectλε·λυ·κοις(paraphrastic)
ιηιτοιη/ιτο
3 SgPresent/2Aorλυ·οι (ο·ι[η])λυ·ο·ιτο
Futureλυ·σοιλυ·σο·ιτολυ·[θ]η·σο·ιτο
1st Aoristλυ·σαιλυ·σα·ιτολυ·[θ]ε·ιη
Perfectλε·λυ·κοι(paraphrastic)
ι(η)μενιμεθαιημεν/ιμεθα
1 PlPresent/2Aorλυ·οιμεν (ο·ι[η]μεν)λυ·ο·ιμεθα
Futureλυ·σοιμενλυ·σο·ιμεθαλυ·[θ]η·σο·ιμεθα
1st Aoristλυ·σαιμενλυ·σα·ιμεθαλυ·[θ]ε·ιημεν
Perfectλε·λυ·κοιμεν(paraphrastic)
ι(η)τεισθειητε/ισθε
2 PlPresent/2Aorλυ·οιτε (ο·ι[η]τε)λυ·ο·ισθε
Futureλυ·σοιτελυ·σο·ισθελυ·[θ]η·σο·ισθε
1st Aoristλυ·σαιτελυ·σα·ισθελυ·[θ]ε·ιητε
Perfectλε·λυ·κοιτε(paraphrastic)
ι(η)σανιντοιησαν/ιντο
3 PlPresent/2Aorλυ·οιεν (ο·ι[η]σαν > οιεν)λυ·ο·ιντο
Futureλυ·σοιενλυ·σο·ιντολυ·[θ]η·σο·ιντο
1st Aoristλυ·σαιεν†λυ·σα·ιντολυ·[θ]ε·ιησαν
Perfectλε·λυ·κοιεν(paraphrastic)

†One occurrence of -σειαν instead of -σαιεν in the third plural first-aorist (1aor opt act 3 pl): ψηλαφη·σειαν (ψηλαφαω).

Imperative Mood (All Tenses)

  • Tenses in the imperative mood: present, aorist, perfect.
  • Imperative mood does not occur in the 1st person.
Active VoiceMiddle/Passive Voiceθη-Passive
θισοτι
2 SgPresent/2Aorλυ·ε (ε·θι > ε?)λυ·ου (ε·σο > ου)
1st Aoristλυ·σον (σα·θι > σον?)λυ·σαι (σα·σο > σαι)λυ·[θ]η·τι
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ε (κε·θι > κε?)λε·λυ·σο
τωσθωτω
3 SgPresent/2Aorλυ·ε·τωλυ·ε·σθω
1st Aoristλυ·σα·τωλυ·σα·σθωλυ·[θ]η·τω
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ε·τωλε·λυ·σθω
τεσθετε
2 PlPresent/2Aorλυ·ε·τελυ·ε·σθε
1st Aoristλυ·σα·τελυ·σα·σθελυ·[θ]η·τε
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ε·τελε·λυ·σθε
τωσανσθωσαντωσαν
3 PlPresent/2Aorλυ·ε·τωσανλυ·ε·σθωσαν
1st Aoristλυ·σα·τωσανλυ·σα·σθωσανλυ·[θ]η·τωσαν
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ε·τωσανλε·λυ·σθωσαν

Infinitive Mood (All Tenses)

  • Tenses in the infinitive mood: present, future, aorist, perfect.
  • Infinitive mood has neither person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) nor number (sg, pl).
Active VoiceMiddle/Passive Voiceθη-Passive
ναισθαιναι/σθαι
Pres/2Aorλυ·ειν (ε·ναι > ειν)λυ·ε·σθαι
Futureλυ·σεινλυ·σε·σθαιλυ·[θ]η·σε·σθαι
1st Aoristλυ·σαι (σα·ναι > σαι)λυ·σα·σθαιλυ·[θ]η·ναι
Perfectλε·λυ·[κ]ε·ναιλε·λυ·σθαι

Present active infinitive of τιμαω is τιμᾳν (τιμ(α)·ειν) or τιμαν (τιμ(α)·ε[ι]ν); of ζαω is ζῃν (ζ(η)·ειν) or ζην (ζ(η)·ε[ι]ν); of πληροω is πληρουν (πληρ(ο)·ε[ι]ν) only. Doesn't affect second-aorists because there are no contracting (α), (η), and (ο) second-aorist stems.

Rules of Contraction

Present, imperfect, and second-aorist vowel-endings contract with most -αω/-εω/-ηω/-οω verbs (exceptions: δεω/δεομαι, καταχεω [e.g., κατεχεεν], πνεω, and πλεω) as follows:

-αω (τιμαω)-εω (φιλεω)-ηω (ζαω/χραομαι)-οω (πληροω)
(α)(ε)(η)(ο)
ειντιμ(α) + ειν = τιμᾳν
or τιμαν
φιλ(ε) + ειν = φιλεινζ(η) + ειν = ζῃν
or ζην
πληρ(ο) + ειν = πληρουν
ειτιμ(α) + ει- = τιμᾳ-φιλ(ε) + ει- = φιλει-ζ(η) + ει- = ζῃ-πληρ(ο) + ει- = πληροι-†
ετιμ(α) + ε- = τιμα-φιλ(ε) + ε- = φιλει-ζ(η) + ε- = ζη-πληρ(ο) + ε- = πληρου-
τιμ(α) + ῃ- = τιμᾳ-φιλ(ε) + ῃ- = φιλῃ-ζ(η) + ῃ = ζῃ-πληροω: πληρ(ο)·ῃς = πληροις
ητιμ(α) + η- = τιμα-φιλ(ε) + η- = φιλη-ζ(η) + η- = ζη-πληρ(ο) + η- = πληρω-
οιτιμ(α) + οι- = τιμῳ-φιλ(ε) + οι- = φιλοι-πληρ(ο) + οι- = πληροι-
ουτιμ(α) + ου- = τιμω-φιλ(ε) + ου- = φιλου-ζ(η) + ου- = ζω-πληρ(ο) + ου- = πληρου-
οτιμ(α) + ο- = τιμω-φιλ(ε) + ο- = φιλου-ζ(η) + ο- = ζω-πληρ(ο) + ο- = πληρου-
ωτιμ(α) + ω- = τιμω-φιλ(ε) + ω- = φιλω-ζ(η) + ω- = ζω-πληρ(ο) + ω- = πληρω-

The only (ω) stem is the second-aorist of γινωσκω: γν(ω)-.

†The following contracted verbs look like optatives: ἀκυροι, δηλοι, δικαιοι, ζηλοι, ζυμοι, καταδουλοι, κοινοι, μαστιγοι, σαροι, and φυσιοι (all pres act ind 3 sg); πληροις (pres act sub 2 sg); and δοι and γνοι (both 2aor act sub 3 sg).

Most -αω/-εω/-ηω/-οω stems lengthen in the future, first-aorist, perfect, and pluperfect tenses (exceptions: ἀρκεω, ἐαω, ἐμεω, ἐπαινεω, ἰαομαι, κλαω, κοπιαω, προαιτιαομαι, καλεω, τελεω, and φορεω) as follows:

-αω (τιμαω)-εω (φιλεω)-ηω (ζαω/χραομαι)-οω (πληροω)
α > ηε > ηη > ηο > ω
στιμα + σ- = τιμησ-φιλε + σ- = φιλησ-ζη + σ- = ζησ-πληρο + σ- = πληρωσ-
κτιμα + κ- = τιμηκ-φιλε + κ- = φιληκ-ζη + κ- = ζηκ-πληρο + κ- = πληρωκ-
θτιμα + θ- = τιμηθ-φιλε + θ- = φιληθ-ζη + θ- = ζηθπληρο + θ- = πληρωθ-

Future and first-aorist σ-endings contract with -δω/-τω/-θω, -βω/-πω/-φω; -γω/-κω/-σσω/-χω and -ζω verbs as follows:
δ, τ, θ -> σ; and β, π, φ -> ψ; and γ, κ, σσ, χ -> ξ; and ζ -> ξ/σ (stems of all -ζω verbs are in actuality either -γ or -σ)

Copyright 2007-2021 Thomas Moore, Email: acct3 at katabiblon.com, Support Forum Set Local Timezone
Thursday, 06-May-2021 09:27:35 EDT

TEXTS

LEXICON

CONTENTS

ABOUT

The Kata Biblon Grammar of the Greek New Testament is a grammar reference of the Greek New Testament and Septuagint.

www.katabiblon.com

OPTIONS



KEYMAP

abgdezhqiklm
αβγδεζηθικλμ
nxoprstufcyw
νξοπρστυφχψω
)(/\=|+'v@#*
᾿ ͺ¨ϝϛʹ%
Wildcard: %