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Verb Principal Parts

Regular Verbs

Present (Impf)
Act/MP
Future
Act/MP
Aorist
Act/MP
Perfect (Plup)
Act
Perfect (Plup)
MP
Aorist (Fut)
θη-Pas
λύωλύωλύσωἔλυσαλελυκαλελυμαιἐλύθην
λυ·ωλυ·σωε·λυ·σαλε·λυ·καλε·λυ·μαιε·λυ·θην
(λυ-)(λυ-)(λυ-)(λε·λυ-)(λε·λυ-)(λυ-)

Imperfect: ἔλυον (ε·λυ·ον); pluperfect act: ἐλελυκειν (ε·λε·λυ·κειν); pluperfect mid/pas: ἐλελυμην (ε·λε·λυ·μην); θη-fut: λυθησομαι (λυ·θησομαι).

What the principal parts tell you:

  • connecting vowel in present/imperfect (λεγω, yes; διδωμι, no)
  • presence of σ in future--how it combines (σσ,γ,κ,κτ,χ -> ξ; β,π,πτ,φ -> ψ; δ,θ -> σ) or whether it drops (liq. verbs)
  • 1st aorist, 2nd aorist, or both
  • σ-aorist, or κ-aorist (some -μι verbs, e.g., διδωμι), or liquid aorist in 1st aorist--and how to combine sigma
  • connecting vowel in 2nd aorist (do any 2nd aorist not have connecting vowels?)
  • augment in 1st/2nd aorist
  • reduplication in perfect/pluperfect
  • presence of κ in perfect/pluperfect act ("1st perf" vs. "2nd perf")
  • presence of θ in θη-passive; augment in θη-aorist

What the principal parts would need to be complete:

  • imperfect (to see augmented present/imperfect stem)
  • 1st/2nd aorist non-indicative (to see unaugmented aorist act/mp stem)
  • pluperfect (to see unaugmented perfect/pluperfect stem)
  • θη-future (to see unaugmented stem θη-passive stem, for both future and non-indicative aorist)

Irregular Verbs

Present (Impf)
Act/MP
Future
Act/MP
Aorist
Act/MP
Perfect (Plup)
Act
Perfect (Plup)
MP
Aorist (Fut)
θη-Pas
ἔρχομαιἔρχομαιἐλεύσομαιἦλθον or ἦλθαἐλήλυθα--
ερχ·ομαιελευ·σομαιεληλυθ·[κ]α
(ερχ-)(ελευ-)(ελθ-)(εληλυθ-)

Imperfect:ἠρχόμην (ε·ερχ·ομην); pluperfect act: ἐληλυθειν ([ε]·εληλυθ·[κ]ειν).

note: Ἔρχομαι has a second-aorist stem which is found with both second- and first-aorist endings: ε·ελθ·ον and ε·ελθ·[σ]α.

-μι Verbs

Present (Impf)
Act/MP
Future
Act/MP
Aorist
Act/MP
Perfect (Plup)
Act
Perfect (Plup)
MP
Aorist (Fut)
θη-Pas
δίδωμιδίδωμιδώσωἔδωκαδέδωκαδέδομαιἐδόθην
δι·δω·μιδω·σωε·δω·καδε·δω·καδε·δο·μαιε·δο·θην
(δι·δο-)(δω-)(δω-/δο-)(δε·δω-)(δε·δο-)(δο-)

Imperfect:ἐδιδων (); pluperfect act: ἐδεδώκειν (); pluperfect mid/pas: (); θη-fut: ().

note: Certain -μι verbs have κ-aorists instead of σ-aorists: δίδωμι, ἰημι, and τίθημι have κ-aorists; ἴστημι, πίμπρημι, and ἀπ+όλλυμι have σ-aorists.

Ἀνοίγω

Present (Impf)
Act/MP
Future
Act/MP
Aorist
Act/MP
Perfect (Plup)
Act
Perfect (Plup)
MP
Aorist (Fut)
θη-Pas
ἀν+οίγωἀνοίγωἀνοίξωἀνέῳξαἀνεῳγαἀνέῳγμαιἀνεῴχθην or ἀνεῴγην
αν·οιγ·ωαν·οιγ·σωαν·ε·οιγ·σααν·εῳγ·[κ]ααν·εῳγ·μαιαν·ε·οιγ·θην
(αν·οιγ-)(αν·οιγ-)(αν·οιγ-)(αν·ε·οιγ-)(αν·ε·οιγ-)(αν·οιγ-)
ἀνοίγω
(variant spelling
of
ἀν+οίγω)
--ἤνοιζα--ἠνοίχθην or ἠνοίγην
ε·ανοιγ·σαε·ανοιγ·θην
(ανοιγ-)(ανοιγ-)
ἀνεῳγω
(variant spelling
of
ἀν+οίγω)
--ἠνέῳζα-ἠνεῳγμαιἠνεῳχθην or ἠνεῳγην
ε·ανεῳγ·σαηνεῳγ·μαιε·ανεῳγ·θην
(ανεῳγ-)(ε·ανεῳγ-)(ανεῳγ-)

note: Ἀνέῳξα, ἤνοιζα, and ἠνέῳζα are essentially variant aorist forms of the same word, differing only in the placement of the augment. In the first case, the augment follows the preposition: αν·ε·οιγ·σα; in the second, the augment precedes the preposition: ε·αν·οιγ·σα; the third case is double-augmented: ε·αν·ε·οιγ·σα.

Copyright 2007-2021 Thomas Moore, Email: acct3 at katabiblon.com, Support Forum Set Local Timezone
Thursday, 06-May-2021 10:03:39 EDT

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The Kata Biblon Grammar of the Greek New Testament is a grammar reference of the Greek New Testament and Septuagint.

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